Production Management

Various Important Aspects of Product Design

Product design is concerned with the form and function of a product. Form design involves the determination of what a product would look like, i. e. product’s shape and appearance, what it will be made of and how it will be made. Functional design deals with what the product will do and how it
works. Functional design the first requirement of a good product design.

it it should effectively perform the function for which it is developed. A handsome product which does not function to the satisfaction of the customer is of no use. For example, a ball pen should give smooth aid even ink flow in writing. The various parts of a technical product, e. g. an electrical circuit, should be within easy reach (accessible) both during use and servicing. For instance, in modern radio and television sets the removal of the back plate reveals the business side of the circuit, thus avoiding the removal of the many screws and other parts.

(b) Form design. Aesthetic considerations are also important particularly in decorative items like ornaments, pictures, etc. But other products should ‘also’ be so designed as to be attractive and not offensive to the eye. A product’s design must satisfy market requirements and be economical to produce. The designer has to design proper quality at a competitive price. Thus there are two aspects of product design ?

(1) Design for selling. The product should be planned from the customers’ point of view as otherwise it will not sell. Use of product, time required to carry out the product function, etc., are important factors.

(2) Design for making. Generally, product design is a function of the engineering department. The final design is the outcome of joint efforts of sales, research and engineering people. Design for making should be such that it can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. This may mean use of sub-assemblies in assembled products. Due consideration should he paid to reliability and serviceability. Accessibility of various parts both during the use and for repair is another aspect which needs careful attention during product designing.

The both aspects of product design are closely interconnected. They are just two different ways of looking at product design. The relative importance of the two may differ from one product to another. Design for selling cannot be separated from design for making. If an attractively designed product cannot be manufactured at a competitive cost, it has little value. Similarly, a product design which is economical to produce serves little purpose if it cannot be sold.

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