Time and Motion Studies are two important techniques of scientific management. Their basic purpose is to improve the working conditions and setting standards in order to reduce the costs, improve to the working conditions. We shall examine these both terms one by one.
In common parlance, time study is the process of observing and recording the time required to perform each detailed element of a work. Here, are important definitions of time study:
1. Time Study involves of careful study of the time in which work ought to be done. –Taylor. F.W.
2. Time Study is the analysis of the time taken to perform a work operation. –Roccoe, E.S.
3. Time Study is a searching analysis of methods and equipment used or planned in doing a piece of work development in practical detail of the best way of doing it and determination of the time required. —Alford and Beaty.
4. Time Study is engineering analysis of unit jobs in industry intended. to discover the time needed to perform those jobs. —H.N. Broom
5. Time Study, in the modem sense, consists in finding the time required to perform each elementary detail of an operation whether these details be manual. —Kimball and Kimball
The above definitions conclude that basic objective of time study is to determine the standard time required to perform standard task by an average skilled and normal worker. Time study is an useful and very pragmatic technique of work measurement.
Motion study is a systematic and critical analysis of the motions made by a man or machine in performing a job so as to eliminate ineffective, wasteful and unwanted motions. According to Frank Gilbreth, “motion study is science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary, ill-directed and inefficient motions. Its aim is to find and perpetuate the least waste methods of doing work.” Here are other definitions of Motion Study:
1. Motion Study is the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from unnecessary, ill directed and inefficient motions.- Gilbreth
2. Motion study is formal engineering analysis of motions deformed to accomplish work, with the intent to eliminate waste motions and improve ill-treated inefficient motions. H.N. Broom
3. “Motion Study may be defined as the study as the movements, weather of a machine or an operator, in performing an operation for the purpose of eliminating useless motions of arranging the sequence of useful motions in the most efficient order’: —Kimball & Kimball
Motion study helps to reduce time, cost and industrial fatigue by (a) eliminating unnecessary motions, (b) combining related motions, (c) simplifying complex motions, (d) improving the sequence of necessary motions, etc. Motion study is a useful device for improving productivity of labor and equipment. Gilbreth analyzed the motions of brick layers reducing them from 18 to 5.
This led to increase in the productivity of bricklayers from 121 bricks per man per hour to 375 bricks. The technique of motion study can be applied in diverse fields of human effort It seeks to determine the one best way of performing any given job through analysis of work methods and procedures.