Three of the legacy leadership models are
- The traits,
- Theory X/Theory Y, and
- Behavioral models.
The traits model stresses the personal characteristics of leaders and attributes success to certain capabilities, skills, and personality characteristics. This model fails to explain why particular managers succeed and others fail as leaders. The key reason is that it overlooks how traits interrelate with situational variables.
The Theory X/Theory Y model is based on the ground that the behavior of managers is often influenced by their assumptions and beliefs about followers and what motivates their followers. Theory X is a combination of propositions and underlying viewpoints that take a command-and-control approach to management based on a pessimistic view of human nature. In contrast, Theory Y is a combination of propositions and beliefs that take a leadership and empowering approach to management based on a positive vision of human characters.
The behavioral model stresses leaders’ actions in its place of their personal traits.
The lesson focused on two leader behaviors—initiating structure and consideration—and how they influence employee performance and job satisfaction.
The behavioral model has a tendency to ignore the circumstances in which the manager is operating. This oversight is the focal point of the two contingency models of leadership.
The contingency approach emphasizes the significance of different situational factors for leaders and their leadership styles.